Teori Kritis dan Dialektika Pencerahan Max Horkheimer

Anna Kurniawati, Alexander Seran, Ridzki Rinanto Sigit

Abstract

This research wants to know the thoughts of one of the critical figures of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, namely Max Horkheimer. This study uses a qualitative method with a literature review study. Based on the literature review study, there are several works of Max Horkheimer’s thought. However, this research intends to discuss are Max Horkheimer’s two prominent thoughts, namely the Dialectic of Enlightenment and Critical Theory. Dialectic of Enlightenment is a book by Adorno and Horkheimer published in 1947 with the title Dialectic der Aufklarung which contains criticism of modern society. This book develops the claim that the systematic search for reason and enlightened freedom has a long-term ironic effect in producing new forms of rationality and oppression. The various essays collected in “Critical Theory” contain not only an acute rejection of positivism but also a denial of the scientific tendencies of orthodox Marxism. According to Horkheimer, the task of critical theory is to penetrate the world of matter and show the basic relationship between persons.

Keyword: critical theory, enlightenment dialectic, frankfurt school

Penelitian ini ingin mengetahui pemikiran dari salah seorang tokoh kritis generasi pertama dari Mazhab Frankfurt, yaitu Max Horkheimer. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan studi literatur review. Berdasarkan studi literatur review, terdapat beberapa hasil karya pemikiran Max Hoekheimer. Namun, yang ingin dibahas dalam penelitian ini adalah dua pemikiran Max Horkheimer yang menonjol, yaitu: Dialectic of Enlightenment (Dialektika Pencerahan) dan Teori Kritis. Dialectic of Enlightenment merupakan buku karangan Adorno dan Horkheimer yang terbit pada tahun 1947 dengan judul Dialektik der Aufklarung yang berisi kritik terhadap mayarakat modern. Buku ini mengembangkan klaim bahwa pencarian sistematik dari akal budi dan kebebasan yang tercerahkan mempunyai pengaruh ironis jangka panjang dalam melahirkan bentuk-bentuk rasionalitas dan penindasan baru. Berbagai esai yang dikumpulkan dalam “Critical Theory” tidak hanya berisi penolakan akut terhadap positivisme, namun juga berisi penyangkalan terhadap tendensi keilmuan Marxisme ortodoks. Menurut Horkheimer, tugas teori kritis adalah untuk menembus dunia benda dan menunjukkan hubungan dasariah antar pribadi.

Kata Kunci: dialektika pencerahan, mazhab frankfurt, teori kritis

Keywords

critical theory, enligthenment dialectic, frankfurt school

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